The celebration of Christmas in France varies by region. Most provinces celebrate Christmas on the 25th of December, which is a bank holiday. However, in eastern and northern France, the Christmas season begins on 6 December, la fête de Saint Nicolas, and in some provinces la fête des Rois* is one the most important holidays of the Christmas season. In Lyon, 8 December is la Fête de lumières, when Lyonnais pay hommage to the virgin Mary by putting candles in their windows to light up the city.
*Epiphany (la fête des Rois) is usually celebrated the 6th of January, but in some places in France it is celebrated the first Sunday after January 1st.
French Christmas TraditionsFrench children put their shoes in front of the fireplace, in the hopes that Père Noël (aka Papa Noël) will fill them with gifts. Candy, fruit, nuts, and small toys will also be hung on the tree overnight. In some regions there's also Père Fouettard who gives out spankings to bad children (sort of the equivalent of Santa Claus giving coal to the naughty).
In 1962, a law was passed decreeing that all letters written to Santa would responded to with a postcard. When a class writes a letter, each student gets a response.
Le RéveillonAlthough fewer and fewer French attend la Messe de Minuit on Christmas Eve, it is still an important part of Christmas for many families. It is followed by a huge feast, called le Réveillon (from the verb réveiller, to wake up or to revive). Le Réveillon is a symbolic awakening to the meaning of Christ's birth and is the culinary high point of the season, which may be enjoyed at home or in a restaurant or café that is open all night. Each region in France has its own traditional Christmas menu, with dishes like goose, chicken, capon, turkey stuffed with chestnuts, oysters, and boudin blanc (similar to white pudding).
French Christmas DessertsThroughout the French Christmas season, there are special traditional desserts:
- La bûche de Noël (Yule log) - A log-shaped cake made of chocolate and chestnuts. Representative of the special wood log burned from Christmas Eve to New Year's Day in the Périgord, which is a holdover from a pagan Gaul celebration.
- Le pain calendal (in southern France) - Christmas loaf, part of which is traditionally given to a poor person.
- Treize desserts (in Provence) - nothing like going a little overboard during the holidays.
- La Galette des Rois (on Epiphany) - round cake which is cut into pieces and distributed by a child, known as le petit roi or l'enfant soleil, hiding under the table. Whoever finds la fève - the charm hidden inside - is King or Queen and can choose a partner.
The sapin de Noël is the main decoration in homes, streets, shops, offices, and factories. The sapin de Noël appeared in Alsace in the 14th century, decorated with apples, paper flowers, and ribbons, and was introduced in France in 1837.
French Christmas Decorations
Another important aspect of French Christmas celebrations is the crèche filled with santons, which is displayed in churches and many homes. Living crèches in the form of plays and puppet shows based on the Nativity are commonly performed to teach the important ideas of Christianity and the Christmas celebration.
Mistletoe is hung above the door during the Christmas season to bring good fortune throughout the year.
After Réveillon, it's customary to leave a candle burning in case the Virgin Mary passes by.
French Christmas Language
* French Christmas vocabulary
* Christmas vocabulary quiz
* Christmas crossword puzzle
* Christmas hangman game
* Christmas word seek
French Holiday Expressions
* Meilleurs vœux !
* Noël au balcon, Pâques au tison
* Noël malin
* Noël sous la neige
* More: Holidays and special occasions
French Christmas Links
* 12 Days of French
* French Advent Calendar
* French Christmas Carols
* French Gifts
* Write a Letter to Santa
Christmas in Provence
* Blé de la Sainte-Barbe (fertility tradition)
* La Calendale (Christmas season)
* La calculabilité de calendriers (calendars for Christmas tips)
* La crèche provençale (nativity scene)
* Le Gros Souper (Great Supper)
* Jésus est né en Provence (Christmas carol)
* Lou cacho-fiò (lighting the bûche de Noël)
* Noël des enfants (Christmas for kids)
* Le pastrage (shepherds' Christmas tradition)