Click the name of each literary tense to learn more about to conjugate and use it.
I. Passé simple
The passé simple is the literary simple past tense. Its English equivalent is the preterite or simple past.
Il choisit. - He chose.
The spoken French equivalent is the passé composé - the English present perfect.
Il a choisi. - He has chosen.
You can see that by not using the passé simple and the passé composé together, the French language has lost the nuance between "he chose" and "he has chosen." The passé simple indicates an action that is complete and has no relationship to the present, whereas using the passé composé indicates a relationship with the present.
II. Passé antérieur
The passé antérieur is the literary compound past tense.
Quand il eut choisi, nous rîmes. - When he had chosen, we laughed.
Its equivalent in spoken French is the plus-que-parfait (the English pluperfect or past perfect).
Quand il avait choisi, nous avons ri. - When he had chosen, we laughed.
The passé antérieur expresses an action that took place right before the action in the main verb (expressed by the passé simple). Aside from being extremely rare in spoken French, the passé antérieur is even disappearing in written French, as it can be replaced by several different constructions (see the lesson on the past anterior for more information).
III. Imparfait du subjonctif*
The imparfait du subjonctif is the literary simple past subjunctive.
J'ai voulu qu'il choisît. - I wanted him to choose. (I wanted that he chose)
Its spoken French equivalent is the present subjunctive.
J'ai voulu qu'il choisisse. - I wanted him to choose. (I wanted that he choose)
The distinction lost here is this: by using the imperfect subjunctive in French, both the main clause (I wanted) and the subordinate clause (that he chose) are in the past, whereas in the spoken French, the subordinate clause is in the present (that he choose).
IV. Plus-que-parfait du subjonctif*
The plus-que-parfait du subjonctif is the literary compound past subjunctive.
J'aurais voulu qu'il eût choisi. - I would have wanted him to choose.
(I would have wanted that he had chosen)
Its spoken French equivalent is the past subjunctive.
J'aurais voulu qu'il ait choisi. - I would have wanted him to choose.
(I would have wanted that he has chosen)
This distinction is even more subtle, and is a combination of the passé composé and imparfait du subjonctif nuances: by using the plus-que-parfait du subjonctif, the action is in the remote past and has no relationship to the present (that he had chosen), whereas using the past subjunctive indicates a slight relationship with the present (that he has chosen).
V. Seconde forme du conditionnel passé
The conditional perfect, second form, is the literary conditional past.
Si je l'eus vu, je l'eusse acheté. - If I had seen it, I would have bought it.
Its spoken French equivalent is the conditional perfect.
Si je l'avais vu, je l'aurais acheté. - If I had seen it, I would have bought it.
The use of the second form of the conditional perfect emphasizes the fact that I didn't buy it, whereas the non-literal conditional perfect makes it sound more like a opportunity that just happened to be missed.
*The English equivalents for these two literary tenses are unhelpful, because English rarely uses the subjunctive. I gave the literal, ungrammatical English translation in parentheses simply to give you an idea of what the French structure is like.
|Literary tense||Literary tense classification||Non-literary equivalent|
|passé simple||simple past||passé composé|
|passé antérieur||compound past||plus-que-parfait|
|imparfait du subjonctif||simple past subjunctive||subjonctif|
|plus-que-parfait du subjonctif||compound past subjunctive||subjonctif passé|
|2e forme du conditionnel passé||conditional past||conditionnel passé|
|More literary French|