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Imperfect - French Past Tense

The incomplete French past tense


The French imperfect (imparfait) is a descriptive past tense which indicates an ongoing state of being or a repeated or incomplete action. The beginning and end of the state of being or action are not indicated, and the imperfect is very often translated in English as "was" or "was ___-ing." The imperfect can indicate any of the following:

I. Habitual actions or states of being

   Quand j'étais petit, nous allions à la plage chaque semaine.
   When I was young, we used to go to the beach every week.

   L'année dernière, je travaillais avec mon père.
   I worked with my father last year.

II. Physical and emotional descriptions: time, weather, age, feelings

   Il était midi et il faisait beau.
   It was noon and the weather was nice.

   Quand il avait 5 ans, il avait toujours faim.
   When he was five, he was always hungry.

III. Actions or states of an unspecified duration

   Je faisais la queue parce que j'avais besoin de billets.
   I stood in line because I needed tickets.

   Il espérait te voir avant ton départ.
   He was hoping to see you before you left.

IV. Background information in conjunction with the passé composé

   J'étais au marché et j'ai acheté des pommes.
   I was at the market and I bought some apples.

   Il était à la banque quand il l'a trouvé.
   He was at the bank when he found it.

V. Wishes or suggestions

   Ah ! Si j'étais riche !
   Oh, if only I were rich!

   Si nous sortions ce soir ?
   How about going out tonight?

VI. Conditions in si clauses

   Si j'avais de l'argent, j'irais avec toi.
   If I had some money, I would go with you.

   S'il voulait venir, il trouverait le moyen.
   If he wanted to come, he would find a way.

VII. The expressions être en train de and venir de in the past

   J'étais en train de faire la vaisselle.
   I was (in the process of) doing the dishes.

   Il venait d'arriver.
   He had just arrived.

Go on to page 2 to learn how to conjugate the imperfect.

Imperfect quiz
Related Video
French Dialogues: Eating Out
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